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PROPOSITION FOR THE DRAFT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF VOJVODINA

 CONCEPTION

  1. GENERAL
  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF VOJVODINA
  3. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
  4. INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF PROTECTION
  5. CONCEPTUAL EXPLANATION OF THE ACT


(Title I)
GENERAL
 
Sec. 1.1.

This legislation regulates policy of environmental protection in Vojvodina.

Vojvodina’s Environmental Policy involves basic elements of the environmental protection and its improvement, which is of national as well as international importance, and incorporates norms and standards which are instrumental in protecting the environment.

Vojvodina’s Environmental Policy is implemented through different measures which are guided by standards for protection, maintenance, rational and meaningful use, management and improvement of the basic elements of environment, that are of the utmost importance for Vojvodina (Srem, Banat and Backa) as well as wider regional cooperation.
 

Sec. 1.2.

Environment, in light of this legislation, is a group of natural and man-made values and conditions where people live and work in symbiosis with other living beings.

Environment consists of the following basic elements: air, water, soil, biodiversity and man-made values.
 

Sec. 1.3.

Environmental protection and its improvement are both parts of global planning policy and socio-economic development.

The object of environmental protection and its improvement is to stop degradation, and to protect and improve the basic elements of the environment through sustainable development.
 

Sec. 1.4.

Environmental protection and its improvement are based on setting regulations and standards for different basic elements of the environment and their implementation, as well as monitoring the practical application of those standards and regulations. Regulations and standards of different basic elements of the environment are set according to the adjustment between unique characteristics of Vojvodina with legally valid acts of European Community member countries.
 

Sec. 1.5.

Vojvodina has the Ministry of environmental protection through which the system of state ruling in the field of environmental protection is implemented.  The Ministry is based on the functional principles in order to fulfill certain state demands and to successfully realize the environmental protection program.
 
 

(Title II)
 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF VOJVODINA
 
Sec. 2.1.

Environmental protection of Vojvodina is being realized through implementation of Strategic Impact Assessment of environmental activities and measures and by implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment of important projects (or other activities) on the environment and in accordance with current emission standards.

Strategic Impact Assessment of environmental activities and measures, established by this Act, involves the evaluation of impact that strategic activities of the state, such as politics, planning and program-making, have on the environment.

Politics, of paragraph 2 of this section, can be defined as guideline and inspiration for activities, plan as a group of time-coordinated objectives for implementing the politics, and program-making as a group of projects in a specific area.

Environmental Impact Assessment of important projects (or other activities), established in this Act, involves evaluation of environmental impact that is probable when important projects (or other activities) are being realized; and when it is expected that the above mentioned impact on natural and man-made values would have significant effect on their quality and quantity.

Emission standards, established by this Act, are maximally allowed values of concentration for polluting substances.

Rules and regulations cover the following:

· Ways of identifying the polluting substances;
· Methodology for creating the integral cadastre of pollution;
· Ways of measuring the emission;
· Authorizations for officials, professional organizations and  institutions;
· Ways of measuring and record keeping as well as their deadlines;
· Data delivering deadlines;
· Determination of maximally allowed values of polluting substances into the environment;
· Determination of measures for environmental quality improvement;
· Determination of fines and other measures of punishment for those who brake the law.
 

Sec. 2.2.

Protection of air involves the atmosphere on the whole, processes within the atmosphere, and its composition.

The air is to be protected from all of the effects that endanger it with the emission of pollutants (liquid, gaseous or solid).

Rules and regulations for air protection determine measures for limiting as well as preventing emission of pollutants.
 

Sec. 2.3.

Air quality rules and regulations, established by this Act, cover the following:

· Maximally allowed values of imission;
· Methods for measuring imission;
· Choosing sites for taking the measurements (samples);
· Deadlines and record keeping;
· Professional organizations and institutions for measuring imission (trained personnel, equipment, etc.);
· Data delivering deadlines.
 

Sec. 2.4.

Water protection involves protection of quality and quantity of surface and ground waters.

 

Sec. 2.5.

Waters, established by this Act, whose protection is of national as well as international importance, are all of which run along, or intersect, the border of Vojvodina and surrounding countries and Serbia.
 
Waters, of paragraph 1 of this section, are as follows: Danube, Tisa, Zlatica, Stari i Plovni Begej, Tamis, Brzava, Karas, Nera, Sava along with the ground waters within the borderline areas.
 

Sec. 2.6.

Water protection involves water flow's categorization and classification of waters according to their use.
 

Sec. 2.7.

Water protection measures are as follows:

· Limiting as well as preventing the intake of pollutants and hazardous waste in water;
· Waste water treatment;
· Quality control and improvement of natural waters.
 

Sec. 2.8.

Shipping waters, established by this Act, are Danube, Sava, and Tisa, as well as part of the melioration system of channels Dunav-Tisa-Dunav (Danube-Tisza-Danube).

Waters of paragraph 1 of this section, are being protected from the damaging effects of the shipping.
 

Sec. 2.9.

Soil, as the basic element of the environment, incorporates its surface area and underground layers (loose soil, rocks, minerals, natural formations and processes within).
 

Sec. 2.10.

Protection of soil involves implementation of measures that prevent natural and man-made soil degradation, as well as depletion of its productive layer.
 

Sec. 2.11.

Rules and regulations, which cover soil protection, regulate the safekeeping of aesthetical, morphological and physical characteristics of soil, as well as prevention from chemical, biological and radiological pollution.
 

Sec. 2.12.

Soil protection is based on the following:

· Issuing, coordinating and structuring adequate space (area) planing documentation;
· Evaluation of the soil characteristics;
· Inventory of the degree of soil damage and suitability for melioration of already damaged soils.
 

Sec. 2.13.

Plants, animals and the rest of the wildlife (biodiversity) incorporate all of the living organisms, their communities and habitats.

Biodiversity, established by this Act, can be used, protected and improved in a way that guarantees its survival and continuous use.

Rules and regulations cover the following:

· Determination of endangered plant and animal species;
· Determination of ways for preservation and increasing the number of individuals of all endangered species;
· Declaration of protected plant and animal species;
· Determination of conditions and principles for declaration of certain territories of land for national parks or natural reservations.
 

Sec. 2.14.

Man-made values are material goods, building heritage, and technology.

Protection of man-made values involves planning, organization, taking the action and measures for safekeeping the above mentioned values.
 

 Sec. 2.15.

Norms and standards, established by this Act, that regulate waste management, cover collection, separation and classification of waste along with the secondary raw materials, transport, temporary storage, recycling, elimination and/or landfilling.
 

Sec. 2.16.

Hazardous waste management (as defined by the international convention guidelines) is implemented through issuing norms and standards of emission of hazardous waste and their control.
 

Sec. 2.17.

Protection from radioactive waste involves making, handling, transfer, and safe disposal of the waste.

Radioactive waste management is attained in accordance with the specific Act.
 

Sec. 2.18.

Protection from the accident involves taking the measures for minimizing the risk of the possible negative environmental effect.

Rules and regulations, established by this act, will cover the following:

· Development of cadastre for potentially dangerous activities;
· Methods for identification of dangerous materials activities;
· Methodology for risk evaluation.
 

Sec. 2.19.

Non ionizing radiation protection involves protection from electrical, electromagnetic fields, thermal and other harmful radiation.

Protection from non ionizing radiation is implemented through different measures according to rules and regulations based on this Act.
 
 

 (Title III)
ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
 
Sec. 3.1.

The main principle of environmental protection financing is " the polluter pays".

Each polluter is responsible for its share of pollution and has to eliminate it.
 

Sec. 3.2.

Certain financial means are provided in order to realize the demands established by this Act.

Financial means are being collected through taxes, subsidies and other economic instruments that are regulated by specific regulations.
 

Sec. 3.3.

Subsidies for fundraising are as follows:

· For solid waste disposal;
· For air pollution;
· For waste waters;
· For the use of natural resources.
 

Sec. 3.4.

Special funds come from taxes put on products that have clear (distinct) negative effect on the environment.
 

Sec. 3.5.

Specific regulations are made in order to coordinate the amounts and ways of collecting and distributing the funds for the implementation of the Act.
 

Sec. 3.6.

Specific regulations are made for rational energy and raw material consumption and consumption of secondary raw materials in order to minimize the natural resources exploitation.
 

Sec. 3.7.

A foundation for protection from risk is made with necessary insurance for some activities.
 
 

(Title IV)
INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF PROTECTION
 
Sec. 4.1.

Environmental protection involves taking the measures that Vojvodina accepted according to international documents.
 

Sec. 4.2.

Environmental protection and overseeing the state of quality need implementing a unique information system.
 
 

* * * * *
 

Titles in preparation:
 

 
 
 

CONCEPTUAL EXPLANATION OF THE ACT

 
 

The Act is based on Agenda 21-The Rio Declaration.

The objective of this Act is to set forth the rules and standards which will regulate protection and improvement of basic elements of the environment that are of the utmost importance for Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and international community.

In order for the integral environmental protection system to be effective and for this Act to be implemented, the Ministry of Environmental protection will be established.  Its purpose will be to, along with other state offices, insure the implementation of the above mentioned Act.

Certain financial means will be provided in order to realize the state (province) rules set forth in this Act.

Financial means are being collected by the Ministry of Environmental Protection that is responsible for the implementation of this Act.

Financial means are being collected through the following subsidies: for solid waste disposal, for wastewaters, and for air pollution.

Special funds will come from taxes put on products that have clear (distinct) negative effect on the environment.

Specific regulations will be made in order to coordinate the amounts and ways of collecting and distributing the funds for the implementation of the Act.
 
 
 

 
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